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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Having been given the lengths, a and b, of two straight lines drawn from the acute angles of a right triangle to the middle of the opposite sides, determine the lengths of those sides.
There are two numbers whose sum equals the difference of their squares.
There is a fish whose body weighs 8oz. Tell me how much the whole fish weighs?
A four-sided town measures 1100 feet on one side and 1000 feet on the other side, on one edge 600 and the other edge 600.
Given a pendulum as shown. The height of the pendulum is two units and its horizontal width is 2 units. What is the area of the pendulum?
A father wills his estate valued at $40, 000 to his three children. Before the settlement one of the children dies. What should the other two receive?
I wish to find three numbers of such nature that the first and the second with 1/2 of the third makes 20...
Of the two water reeds, the one grows 3 feet and the other 1 foot on the first day. The growth of the first becomes every day half of that of the preceding day, while the other grows twice as much as on the day before.
The authors recount the 'great tale' of Napier's and Burgi's parallel development of logarithms and urge you to use it in class.
The cost per hour of running a certain steamboat is proportional to the cube of its velocity in still water. At what speed should it be run to make a trip up stream against a four-mile current most economically?