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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

A vessel is anchored in 3 fathoms of water and the cable passes over a sheave in the bowspirt which is 6 ft above the water.
Wanting to know the breadth of a river, I measured a base of 500 yards in a straight line close by one side of it.
If you are h feet tall and walk all the way around the Earth, keeping to the same circumference, how much farther has your head gone than your feet when you complete the journey?
The square root of half the number of bees in a swarm has flown out upon a jessamine bush; 8/9 of the swarm has remained behind.
On a day in spring a boy has gathered cherry blossoms under a cherry tree. Nearby a poet is reading some of his poems aloud. As he reads, the boy counts out the cherry blossoms, one blossom for each word of a poem.
Given four integers where if added together three at a time their sums are: 20, 22, 24, and 27. What are the integers?
An old Chinese general led his army to a river with a steep bank. Standing atop the bank, he held a stick 6 feet long perpendicular to himself.
Make a crown of gold copper, tin, and iron weighing 60 minae: gold and copper shall be 2/3 of it; gold and tin, 3/4 of it; and gold and iron, 3/5 of it. Find the required weights of gold, copper, tin, and iron.
In the figure at the left, if the radii of each inscribed circle is 1, what are the dimensions of the bounding rectangle?
There is a four sided field.

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