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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Three men wish to buy a horse but none have a sufficient amount of money for the purchase; to do so they must borrow from each other. How much money does each man have and what is the price of the horse?
Two officers each have a company of men, the one has 40 less than the other.
What is the perpendicular height of a cloud when its angles of elevation were 35 degrees and 64 degrees as taken by two observers at the same time...
There are two numbers whose sum equals the difference of their squares.
When knowing the sum of their ages along with another equation, determine how old a father and son are.
A four-sided town measures 1100 feet on one side and 1000 feet on the other side, on one edge 600 and the other edge 600.
A merchant bought 50,000 pounds of pepper in Portugal for 10,000 scudi and paid a tax of 500 scudi.
A California miner has a spherical ball of gold, 2 inches in diamter, which he wants to exchange for spherical balls 1 inch in diameter. How many of the smaller spheres should he receive?
Find a number having remainder 29 when divided by 30 and remainder 3 when divided by 4.
The sum of two numbers is 10 and their product is 40. What are the numbers?