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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

There is a fish whose body weighs 8oz. Tell me how much the whole fish weighs?
The sum of the two digits of a 2-digit number is 9. If 45 is subtracted from the number, the result will be expressed by the digits in reverse order. Find the number.
To find three quantities x.y, and z...
A father wills his estate valued at $40, 000 to his three children. Before the settlement one of the children dies. What should the other two receive?
A water tub holds 73 gallons; the pipe which fills it usually admits 7 gallons in 5 minutes; and the tap discharges 20 gallons in 17 minutes.
Of the two water reeds, the one grows 3 feet and the other 1 foot on the first day. The growth of the first becomes every day half of that of the preceding day, while the other grows twice as much as on the day before.
In a square box that contains 1000 marbles, how many will it take to reach across the bottom of the box in a straight row?
The cost per hour of running a certain steamboat is proportional to the cube of its velocity in still water. At what speed should it be run to make a trip up stream against a four-mile current most economically?
The authors recount the 'great tale' of Napier's and Burgi's parallel development of logarithms and urge you to use it in class.
Divide 100 loaves of bread among 10 men including a boatman, a foreman, and a doorkeeper, who receives double portions. What is the share of each?