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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

The cavity of our chimney is an upright parallelepiped, the diagonal of whose base is 60"; and the height of the lower side of the lintel above the plane of the floor is 40".
Given a number, take 1/3 of the number away from itself and add 2. If this result is multiplied by itself, it equals the number plus 24. What is the number?
Determine by using algebra the number of degrees in the angle A where: cos A = tan A
If an equilateral triangle whose area is equal to 10,000 square feet be surrounded by a walk of uniform width, and equal to the area of the inscribed circle, what is the width of the walk?
On an expedition to seize his enemy's elephants, a king marched 2 yojanas the first day.
Imagine an urn with two balls, each of which may be either white or black. One of these balls is drawn and is put back before a new one is drawn.
A railway train strikes a snowdrift which creates a constant resistance. How long does it take the snow to stop the train?
Suppose a lighthouse is built on the top of a rock; the distance between a place of observation and that part of the rock level with the eye is 620 yds.
One military horse cannot pull a load of 40 dan; neither can 2 ordinary horses, nor can three inferior horses.
In a forest, a number of apes equal in number to the square of 1/8 of the total number of apes are noisy. The remaining 12 apes are on a nearby hill irritated. What is the total number of apes in the pack?