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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

A general formed his men into a square, that is, an equal number in rank and file, and he found that he had an excess of 59 men.
The authors recount the 'great tale' of Napier's and Burgi's parallel development of logarithms and urge you to use it in class.
In Archimedes' Book of Lemmas (ca 250), he introduces a figure that, due to its shape, has historically been known as "the shoemaker's knife" or arbelos.
Having been given the lengths, a and b, of two straight lines drawn from the acute angles of a right triangle to the middle of the opposite sides, determine the length of those sides.
There is a fish whose body weighs 8oz. Tell me how much the whole fish weighs?
Problems from a 15th century French manuscript, including one with negative solutions
In a certain lake, swarming with red geese, the tip of a lotus bud was seen to extend a span [9 inches] above the surface of the water.
There is a tree with 100 branches. How many nests, eggs and birds are there?
Two men starting from the same point begin walking in different directions. Their rates of travel are in the ratio 7:3.
Three circles of varying radius are mutually tangent. The area of the triangle connecting their centers is given. Find the radius of the third circle.