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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

On an expedition to seize his enemy's elephants, a king marched 2 yojanas the first day.
A railway train strikes a snowdrift which creates a constant resistance. How long does it take the snow to stop the train?
A copper water tank in the form of a rectangular parallelopiped is to made. If its length is to be a times its breadth, how high should it be that for a given capacity it should cost as little as possible?
The square of a certain number multiplied by itself and by 200 is 446,976. What is the number?
A ladder is placed perpendicular to the plane of the horizon, and in coincidence with the plane of an upright wall.
Suppose that for every 4 cows a farmer has, he should plow 1 acre of land, and allow 1 acre of pasture for every 3 cows; how many cows could he keep on 140 acres?
Two wine merchants enter Paris, one of them with 64 casks of wine, the other with 20.
The cavity of our chimney is an upright parallelepiped, the diagonal of whose base is 60"; and the height of the lower side of the lintel above the plane of the floor is 40".
The three sides of a triangular piece of land, taken in order, measure 15, 10, and 13 chains respectively.
Given a number, take 1/3 of the number away from itself and add 2. If this result is multiplied by itself, it equals the number plus 24. What is the number?