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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

One military horse cannot pull a load of 40 dan; neither can 2 ordinary horses, nor can three inferior horses.
A father left $20,000 to be divided among his four sons ages 6, 8, 10, and 12 years respectively so that each share placed at 4 1/2 compounded interest should amount to the same value when its possessor becomes the age 21.
Three men have a pile of money, their shares being 1/2, 1/3 and 1/6. Each man takes some money from the pile until nothing is left.
Given a right triangle where you know the length of the base and the sum of the perpendicular side and the hypotenuse.

The three sides of a triangular piece of land, taken in order, measure 15, 10, and 13 chains respectively.
Two persons sat down to play for a certain sum of money; and agree that the first who gets three games shall be the winner. After a few games they resolve to divide the stakes. How much should each person receive?
The authors recount the 'great tale' of Napier's and Burgi's parallel development of logarithms and urge you to use it in class.
A certain slave fled from Milan to Naples going 1/10 of the whole journey each day. At the beginning of the third day, his master sent a slave after him and this slave went 1/7 of the whole journey each day.
After a terrible battle it is found that 70% of the soldiers have lost an eye.
There is a round fish pond of certain dimensions, and into the pond is dropped a marble column. How high will the water rise?