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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

There is a circle from within which a square is cut, the remaining portion having an area of 47.6255 square units.
A series of circles have their centers on an equilateral hyperbola and pass through its center. Show that their envelope is a lemniscate.
Given a wooden log of diameter 2 feet 5 inches from which a 7 inch thick board is to be cut, what is the maximum possible width of the board?
How a translation of Peano's counterexample to the 'theorem' that a zero Wronskian implies linear dependence can help your differential equations students
In a certain lake, swarming with red geese, the tip of a lotus bud was seen to extend a span [9 inches] above the surface of the water.
A speculator bought stock at 25% below par and sold it at 20% above par. He gained $1560. How much did he invest?
Given: a circle with an inscribed equilateral triangle. The triangle has an area of 12 square units. What is the area of the circle?
Determine by using algebra the number of degrees in the angle A where: cos A = tan A
If 80 dollars worth of provisions will serve 20 men for 25 days, what number of men will the same amount of provisions serve for 10 days?
On an expedition to seize his enemy's elephants, a king marched 2 yojanas the first day.