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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

After a terrible battle it is found that 70% of the soldiers have lost an eye.
If 40 oranges are worth 60 apples, and 75 apples are worth 7 dozen peaches, and 100 peaches are worth 1 box of grapes and three boxes of grapes are worth 40 pounds of pecans, how many peaches can be bought for 100 oranges?
Problems from a 15th century French manuscript, including one with negative solutions
One hundred men besieged in a castle, have sufficient food to allow each one bread to the weight of 14 lot a day for ten months.
A certain slave fled from Milan to Naples going 1/10 of the whole journey each day. At the beginning of the third day, his master sent a slave after him and this slave went 1/7 of the whole journey each day.
A wooden beam is stood vertically against a wall. The length of the beam is 30 units.
There is a round fish pond of certain dimensions, and into the pond is dropped a marble column. How high will the water rise?
Three circles of varying radius are mutually tangent. The area of the triangle connecting their centers is given. Find the radius of the third circle.
If you are h feet tall and walk all the way around the Earth, keeping to the same circumference, how much farther has your head gone than your feet when you complete the journey?
Two officers each have a company of men, the one has 40 less than the other.