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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

What will the diameter of a sphere be, when its volume and surface area are expressed by the same number?
There are two columns in the ruins of Persepolis left standing upright; one is 70 ft. above the plane, and the other 50 ft;
If 12 cattle eat up 3 1/3 acres of meadow in 4 weeks and 21 cattle eat up 10 acres of exactly similar meadow in 9 weeks, how many cattle shall eat up 36 acres in 18 weeks? (Hint: The grass continues to grow.)
A man bought a number of sheep for $225; 10 of them having died, he sold 4/5 of the remainder for the same cost and received $150 for them. How many did he buy?
If a ball 6 inches in diameter weighs 32 lbs, what will be the weight of a ball 3 inches in diameter?
A certain merchant increases the value of his estate by 1/3...
Find the two numbers such that multiplying one by the other makes 8 and the sum of their squares is 27
Determine the different values of x, when a certain function hits a minimum.
How high above the earth must a person be raised that he [or she] may see 1/3 of its surface?
A square walled city of unknown dimensions has four gates, one at the center of each side.