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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Find two number with sum 20 and when squared their sum is 208.
You have two sums of money, the difference of which is 2 dirhams; you divide the smaller sum by the larger and the quotient is equal to 1/2. What are the two sums of money?
Given the cats eye as shown. Let the radius of the eye be given by R. What is the area of the pupil?
An old Chinese general led his army to a river with a steep bank. Standing atop the bank, he held a stick 6 feet long perpendicular to himself.
I was employed to survey a field, which I was told was an exact geometrical square, but by reason of a river running through it, I can only obtain partial measurements.
There is a four sided field.
A ladder has 100 steps. On the first step sits 1 pigeon; on the second, 2; on the third, 3; and so on up to the hundredth. How many pigeons in all?
How a translation of Peano's counterexample to the 'theorem' that a zero Wronskian implies linear dependence can help your differential equations students
A teacher agreed to teach 9 months for $562.50 and his board. At the end of the term, on account of two months absence caused by sickness, he received only $409.50. What was his board worth per month?
In one day, a person can make 30 arrows or fletch [put the feathers on] 20 arrows.