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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

A vessel is anchored in 3 fathoms of water and the cable passes over a sheave in the bowspirt which is 6 ft above the water.
Wanting to know the breadth of a river, I measured a base of 500 yards in a straight line close by one side of it.
A father wills his estate valued at $40, 000 to his three children. Before the settlement one of the children dies. What should the other two receive?
Of the two water reeds, the one grows 3 feet and the other 1 foot on the first day. The growth of the first becomes every day half of that of the preceding day, while the other grows twice as much as on the day before.
A castle has n rooms each of which has 7 samurai in it.
Find two number with sum 20 and when squared their sum is 208.
The cost per hour of running a certain steamboat is proportional to the cube of its velocity in still water. At what speed should it be run to make a trip up stream against a four-mile current most economically?
Divide 100 loaves of bread among 10 men including a boatman, a foreman, and a doorkeeper, who receives double portions. What is the share of each?
Given the cats eye as shown. Let the radius of the eye be given by R. What is the area of the pupil?
Three hundred pigs are to be prepared for a feast.