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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Two men brought their fish through customs. Find how much the fish cost, and what is the customs fee.
A rifle ball is fired through a three-inch plank, the resistance of which causes an unknown constant retardation of its velocity.
As for a square piece of land that amounts to 100 square cubits, if it is said to you, "Cause it to make a piece of land that amounts to 100 square cubits that is round," what is the required diameter?
The perimeters of two similar triangles are 45 and 135 respectively. One side of the first triangle has length 11″ and a second side, 19″. Find the lengths of the sides of the second triangle.
Suppose General [George] Washington had 800 men and was supplied with provisions to last 2 months but he needed to feed his army for 7 months.
There is a regular pentagon. The length of its side is a. Find the area of the pentagon. Generalize your result for a nonagon.
Two men rent a pasture for 100 liras on the understanding that two cows are to be counted as being equivalent to three sheep. The first puts in 60 cows and 85 sheep; the second 80 cows and 100 sheep. How much should each pay?
Show that the curves x2 - y2 = a2 and 2 xy = b2 cross at right angles.
Two men have a certain amount of money. The first says to the second, "If you give me 5 denari, I will have 7 times what you have left."
A certain man had in his trade four weights with which he could weigh integral pounds from one up to 40. How many pounds was each weight?