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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

There are two numbers whose sum equals the difference of their squares.
A four-sided town measures 1100 feet on one side and 1000 feet on the other side, on one edge 600 and the other edge 600.
A teacher agreed to teach 9 months for $562.50 and his board. At the end of the term, on account of two months absence caused by sickness, he received only $409.50. What was his board worth per month?
Find the isoceles triangle of smallest area that circumscribes a circle of radius 1.
A merchant bought 50,000 pounds of pepper in Portugal for 10,000 scudi and paid a tax of 500 scudi.
Find a number having remainder 29 when divided by 30 and remainder 3 when divided by 4.
In a right triangle, the hypotenuse is 9.434 and the sum of the sides around the right angle is 13. Find the lengths of the sides around the right angle.
Four men already having denari found a purse of denari; each man has a different amount of denari before they found the purse. Find out how much denari each man has.
The authors recount the 'great tale' of Napier's and Burgi's parallel development of logarithms and urge you to use it in class.
An oblong garden is a half yard longer than it is wide and consists entirely of a gravel walk...