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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Two merchants, A and B, loaded a ship with 500 hhds (hogshead) of rum; A loaded 350 hhds, and B the rest; in a storm the seamen were obliged to throw overboard 100 hhds; how much must each sustain of the loss?
There are two piles, one containing 9 gold coins, the other 11 silver coins.
The king of France entered into a battle and was defeated. How many soldiers did he have before he was defeated?
How a translation of Peano's counterexample to the 'theorem' that a zero Wronskian implies linear dependence can help your differential equations students
What is the perpendicular height of a cloud when its angles of elevation were 35 degrees and 64 degrees as taken by two observers at the same time...
There is a mound of earth in the shape of a frustum of a cone.
When knowing the sum of their ages along with another equation, determine how old a father and son are.
Discussion of 15th century French manuscript, with translation of its problems, including one with negative solutions
A gentleman has a garden of rectangular form and wants to construct a walk of equal width half way round to take up half the garden. What must be the width of this walk?
A California miner has a spherical ball of gold, 2 inches in diamter, which he wants to exchange for spherical balls 1 inch in diameter. How many of the smaller spheres should he receive?