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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Three people buy wood together. One pays the merchant 5 coins, another 3 coins, and the last 2 coins.
What is the sum of the following series, carried to infinity: 11, 11/7, 11/49, etc.?
Discussion of 15th century French manuscript, with translation of its problems, including one with negative solutions
Suppose that the propability of success in an experiment is 1/10. How many trials of the experiment are necessary to insure even odds on it happening at least once?
Find two numbers such that multiplying one by the other makes 8 and the sum of their squares is 27.
Two merchants, A and B, loaded a ship with 500 hhds (hogshead) of rum; A loaded 350 hhds, and B the rest; in a storm the seamen were obliged to throw overboard 100 hhds; how much must each sustain of the loss?
The king of France entered into a battle and was defeated. How many soldiers did he have before he was defeated?
Find two numbers, x and y, such that their sum is 10 and x/y + y/x = 25
What is the sum of the reciprocals of the triangular numbers?
What is the perpendicular height of a cloud when its angles of elevation were 35 degrees and 64 degrees as taken by two observers at the same time...

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