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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

A gentleman has bought a rectangular piece of land whose perimeter is to be 100 rods.
A rifle ball is fired through a three-inch plank, the resistance of which causes an unknown constant retardation of its velocity.
As for a square piece of land that amounts to 100 square cubits, if it is said to you, "Cause it to make a piece of land that amounts to 100 square cubits that is round," what is the required diameter?
A copper water tank in the form of a rectangular parallelopiped is to made. If its length is to be a times its breadth, how high should it be that for a given capacity it should cost as little as possible?
A ladder is placed perpendicular to the plane of the horizon, and in coincidence with the plane of an upright wall.
There is a regular pentagon. The length of its side is a. Find the area of the pentagon. Generalize your result for a nonagon.
Two men rent a pasture for 100 liras on the understanding that two cows are to be counted as being equivalent to three sheep. The first puts in 60 cows and 85 sheep; the second 80 cows and 100 sheep. How much should each pay?
Two wine merchants enter Paris, one of them with 64 casks of wine, the other with 20.
The three sides of a triangular piece of land, taken in order, measure 15, 10, and 13 chains respectively.
On a certain ground stands two poles 12 feet apart, the lesser pole is 35 ft. in height and the greater 40 ft. It is sought, if the greater pole will lean on the lesser, then in what part will it touch?