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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Given a triangular piece of land having two sides 10 yards in length and its base 12 yards, what is the largest square that can be constructed within this piece of land so that one of its sides lies along the base of the triangle?
A man is walking across a bridge, when a boat passes under the bridge.How rapidly are the boat and the pedestrian separating after the boat passes under the bridge?
What is the sum of the following series, carried to infinity: 11, 11/7, 11/49, etc.?
One person possesses 7 asavas horses, another 9 hayas horses, and another 9 camels. Each gives two animals away, one to each of the others.
Suppose that the propability of success in an experiment is 1/10. How many trials of the experiment are necessary to insure even odds on it happening at least once?
There are two numbers whose sum equals the difference of their squares.
Two merchants, A and B, loaded a ship with 500 hhds (hogshead) of rum; A loaded 350 hhds, and B the rest; in a storm the seamen were obliged to throw overboard 100 hhds; how much must each sustain of the loss?
A four-sided town measures 1100 feet on one side and 1000 feet on the other side, on one edge 600 and the other edge 600.
The king of France entered into a battle and was defeated. How many soldiers did he have before he was defeated?
A merchant bought 50,000 pounds of pepper in Portugal for 10,000 scudi and paid a tax of 500 scudi.

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