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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Two merchants, A and B, loaded a ship with 500 hhds (hogshead) of rum; A loaded 350 hhds, and B the rest; in a storm the seamen were obliged to throw overboard 100 hhds; how much must each sustain of the loss?
A man is walking across a bridge, when a boat passes under the bridge.How rapidly are the boat and the pedestrian separating after the boat passes under the bridge?
The king of France entered into a battle and was defeated. How many soldiers did he have before he was defeated?
One person possesses 7 asavas horses, another 9 hayas horses, and another 9 camels. Each gives two animals away, one to each of the others.
What is the perpendicular height of a cloud when its angles of elevation were 35 degrees and 64 degrees as taken by two observers at the same time...
There are two numbers whose sum equals the difference of their squares.
When knowing the sum of their ages along with another equation, determine how old a father and son are.
A four-sided town measures 1100 feet on one side and 1000 feet on the other side, on one edge 600 and the other edge 600.
A merchant bought 50,000 pounds of pepper in Portugal for 10,000 scudi and paid a tax of 500 scudi.
A California miner has a spherical ball of gold, 2 inches in diamter, which he wants to exchange for spherical balls 1 inch in diameter. How many of the smaller spheres should he receive?