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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

There is a garden is the shape of a rhombus whose side is 768.52 feet. Within the garden is an inscribed square flower bed whose side is 396 feet. What is the area of the garden?
Given a rectangle, find the line through one vertex of minimum length that passes through the extensions of the two opposite sides.
There is a right triangle where: the sum of the upright multiplied by itself twice and the hypotenuse multiplied by itself is 700 units; and, the sum of the base multiplied by itself twice and the hypotenuse multiplied by itself is 900 units.
The purchase price for an apple and an orange is 100 yen. When n oranges and n + 3 apples are bought the price is 520 yen. Find the number n of oranges and the price of one orange.
Three men wish to buy a horse but none have a sufficient amount of money for the purchase; to do so they must borrow from each other. How much money does each man have and what is the price of the horse?
Having been given the perimeter and perpendicular of a right angled triangle, it is required to find the triangle.
What is the perpendicular height of a cloud when it's angles of elevation were 35 degrees and 64 degrees as taken by two observers?
Determine the dimensions of the least isosceles triangle ACD that can circumscribe a given circle.
How much does Landowner A give to each worker knowing Landowner B gives a certain amount more and has few workers.
Given four numbers whose sum is 9900; the second exceeds the first by 1/7 of the first...