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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

The number 50 is divided by a certain number. If the divisor is increased by 3, the quotient decreases by 3.75. What is the number?
Discussion of 15th century French manuscript, with translation of its problems, including one with negative solutions
I was employed to survey a field, which I was told was an exact geometrical square, but by reason of a river running through it, I can only obtain partial measurements.
A gentleman has a garden of rectangular form and wants to construct a walk of equal width half way round to take up half the garden. What must be the width of this walk?
A ladder has 100 steps. On the first step sits 1 pigeon; on the second, 2; on the third, 3; and so on up to the hundredth. How many pigeons in all?
A teacher agreed to teach 9 months for $562.50 and his board. At the end of the term, on account of two months absence caused by sickness, he received only $409.50. What was his board worth per month?
Two cog-wheels, one having 26 cogs, and the other 20 cogs, run together. In how many revolutions of the larger wheel will the smaller gain in 12 revolutions?
Find the isoceles triangle of smallest area that circumscribes a circle of radius 1.
A certain merchant increases the value of his estate by 1/3...
There is a right triangle where: the sum of the upright multiplied by itself twice and the hypotenuse multiplied by itself is 700 units; and, the sum of the base multiplied by itself twice and the hypotenuse multiplied by itself is 900 units.