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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

In a forest, a number of apes equal in number to the square of 1/8 of the total number of apes are noisy. The remaining 12 apes are on a nearby hill irritated. What is the total number of apes in the pack?
Find the area of the elliptical segment cut off parallel to the shorter axis;
The sum of the two digits of a 2-digit number is 9. If 45 is subtracted from the number, the result will be expressed by the digits in reverse order. Find the number.
A number of 3 digits in base 7 has the same three digits...
To find three quantities x.y, and z...
If two Post-boys, A and B at 59 miles distance from one another, set out in the morning in order to meet...
There are two numbers which are to each other as 5 and 6 and the sum of their squares is 2196. What are the numbers?
The square of a certain number multiplied by itself and by 200 is 446,976. What is the number?
Suppose a ladder 60 feet long is placed in a street so as to reach a window 37 feet above the ground on one side of the street...
Suppose that for every 4 cows a farmer has, he should plow 1 acre of land, and allow 1 acre of pasture for every 3 cows; how many cows could he keep on 140 acres?