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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

There is a lion in a well whose depth is 50 palms. He climbs and slips back a certain amount each day. In how many days will he get out of the well?
In a certain lake, swarming with red geese, the tip of a lotus bud was seen to extend a span [9 inches] above the surface of the water.
A father wills his estate valued at $40, 000 to his three children. Before the settlement one of the children dies. What should the other two receive?
Determine by using algebra the number of degrees in the angle A where: cos A = tan A
Of the two water reeds, the one grows 3 feet and the other 1 foot on the first day. The growth of the first becomes every day half of that of the preceding day, while the other grows twice as much as on the day before.
On an expedition to seize his enemy's elephants, a king marched 2 yojanas the first day.
The cost per hour of running a certain steamboat is proportional to the cube of its velocity in still water. At what speed should it be run to make a trip up stream against a four-mile current most economically?
A railway train strikes a snowdrift which creates a constant resistance. How long does it take the snow to stop the train?
Divide 100 loaves of bread among 10 men including a boatman, a foreman, and a doorkeeper, who receives double portions. What is the share of each?
A copper water tank in the form of a rectangular parallelopiped is to made. If its length is to be a times its breadth, how high should it be that for a given capacity it should cost as little as possible?

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