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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Discussion of 15th century French manuscript, with translation of its problems, including one with negative solutions
I have two fields of grain. From the first field I harvest 2/3 a bushel of grain/unit area; from the second, 1/2 bushel/unit area.
A fish sees a heron looking at him from across a pool, so he quickly swims towards the south. When he reaches the south side of the pool, he has the unwelcome surprise of meeting the heron.
Prove that the area of a regular polygon can be given by the product of its perimeter and half the radius of the inscribed circle.
Two circles of radii 25 feet intersect so that the distance between their centers is 30 feet. What is the length of the side of the largest square inscribable within their intersecting arcs?
A round pond sits in a rectangular garden. Its center is inaccessible; however, you know the distances from each corner of the garden to the center of the pond: 60, 52, 28, and 40 yards. What is the radius of the pond?
Two cog-wheels, one having 26 cogs, and the other 20 cogs, run together. In how many revolutions of the larger wheel will the smaller gain in 12 revolutions?
Having been given the sum of two numbers,a, and the difference of their squares,b, find the numbers.
A circle is inscribed in an isosceles trapezoid. Find the relationship of the radius to the sides.
A carpenter has undertaken to build a house in 20 days. He takes on another man and says; "If we build the house together, we can accomplish the work in 8 days!" How long would it take this other man to build the house working alone?