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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

To find three quantities x.y, and z...
One says that 10 garments were purchased by two men at a price of 72 dirhams. The garments varied in value. The price of each garment of one man is 3 dirhams more than the price for each garment of the other. How many garments did each man buy?
A water tub holds 73 gallons; the pipe which fills it usually admits 7 gallons in 5 minutes; and the tap discharges 20 gallons in 17 minutes.
If an equilateral triangle whose area is equal to 10,000 square feet be surrounded by a walk of uniform width, and equal to the area of the inscribed circle, what is the width of the walk?
In a square box that contains 1000 marbles, how many will it take to reach across the bottom of the box in a straight row?
Imagine an urn with two balls, each of which may be either white or black. One of these balls is drawn and is put back before a new one is drawn.
The authors recount the 'great tale' of Napier's and Burgi's parallel development of logarithms and urge you to use it in class.
Suppose a lighthouse is built on the top of a rock; the distance between a place of observation and that part of the rock level with the eye is 620 yds.
In how many ways can a vowel and a consonant be chosen out of the word "logarithms?"
In a forest, a number of apes equal in number to the square of 1/8 of the total number of apes are noisy. The remaining 12 apes are on a nearby hill irritated. What is the total number of apes in the pack?