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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Two men brought their fish through customs. Find how much the fish cost, and what is the customs fee.
There is a log of precious wood 18 feet long whose bases are 5 feet and 2.5 feet in circumference. Into what lengths should the log be cut to trisect its volume?
Suppose that for every 4 cows a farmer has, he should plow 1 acre of land, and allow 1 acre of pasture for every 3 cows; how many cows could he keep on 140 acres?
The sum of the two digits of a 2-digit number is 9. If 45 is subtracted from the number, the result will be expressed by the digits in reverse order. Find the number.
To find three quantities x.y, and z...
The cavity of our chimney is an upright parallelepiped, the diagonal of whose base is 60"; and the height of the lower side of the lintel above the plane of the floor is 40".
Given a number, take 1/3 of the number away from itself and add 2. If this result is multiplied by itself, it equals the number plus 24. What is the number?
There are two numbers which are to each other as 5 and 6 and the sum of their squares is 2196. What are the numbers?
Suppose a ladder 60 feet long is placed in a street so as to reach a window 37 feet above the ground on one side of the street...
If an equilateral triangle whose area is equal to 10,000 square feet be surrounded by a walk of uniform width, and equal to the area of the inscribed circle, what is the width of the walk?