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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Given a wooden log of diameter 2 feet 5 inches from which a 7 inch thick board is to be cut, what is the maximum possible width of the board?
There are two numbers whose sum equals the difference of their squares.
A four-sided town measures 1100 feet on one side and 1000 feet on the other side, on one edge 600 and the other edge 600.
A man agreed to pay for 13 valuable houses worth $5000 each, what the last would amount to, reckoning 7 cents for the first, 4 times 7 cents for the second, and so on, increasing the price 4 times on each to the last.
Given: a circle with an inscribed equilateral triangle. The triangle has an area of 12 square units. What is the area of the circle?
Given a pendulum as shown. The height of the pendulum is two units and its horizontal width is 2 units. What is the area of the pendulum?
I wish to find three numbers of such nature that the first and the second with 1/2 of the third makes 20...
If 80 dollars worth of provisions will serve 20 men for 25 days, what number of men will the same amount of provisions serve for 10 days?
Two persons sat down to play for a certain sum of money; and agree that the first who gets three games shall be the winner. After a few games they resolve to divide the stakes. How much should each person receive?
The authors recount the 'great tale' of Napier's and Burgi's parallel development of logarithms and urge you to use it in class.