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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

The edge of a cloud is at an altitude of 20 degrees and the sun above it at 35 degrees. The shadow cast by the edge of the cloud fall on a object 2300 yards away, how high is the cloud?
Discussion of 15th century French manuscript, with translation of its problems, including one with negative solutions
A lady has two silver cups, and only one cover for both. The first cup weighs 16 oz, and when it is covered it weighs 3 times as much as the second cup; but when the second cup is covered, it weighs 4 times as much as the first.
Of a collection of mango fruits, the king took 1/6; the queen 1/5 the remainder, and the three princes took 1/4, 1/3 and 1/2 (of the same remainder); and the youngest child took the remaining 3 mangoes.
The history and mathematics of curve sketching, tangent lines, and optimization, are explored using interactive applets.
Three vertical posts along a straight canal, each rising to the same height above the surface of the water. By looking at the line of vision, determine, to the nearest mile, the radius of the earth.
A vessel is anchored in 3 fathoms of water and the cable passes over a sheave in the bowspirt which is 6 ft above the water.
The answer to the following question is obtained using as optimum strategy-the farmer is getting the "best deal" possible. Can you figure out the solution strategy?...
Wanting to know the breadth of a river, I measured a base of 500 yards in a straight line close by one side of it.
I am a brazen lion; my spouts are my 2 eyes, my mouth, and the flat of my foot. My right eye fills a jar in 2 days, my left eye in 3, and my foot in 4.