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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Having been given the perimeter and perpendicular of a right angled triangle, it is required to find the triangle.
A woodcutter starts to fell a tree 4 feet in diameter, and cuts half way through. One face of the cut is horizontal, and the other face is inclined to the horizontal at an angle of 45 degrees. Find the volume of the wood cut out.
I found a stone but did not weigh it; after I added to it 1/7 of its weight and then 1/11 of this new weight, I weighed the total at 1 mina. What was the weight of the stone?
A water tub holds 73 gallons; the pipe which fills it usually admits 7 gallons in 5 minutes; and the tap discharges 20 gallons in 17 minutes.
In a square box that contains 1000 marbles, how many will it take to reach across the bottom of the box in a straight row?
A man died leaving 3 sons, to whom he bequeathed his estate in the following manner: to the eldest he gave 184 dollars; to the second 155 dollars and to the third 96 dollars;
IOU
I owe a man the following notes: one of $800 due May 16; one of $660 due on July 1; one of $940 due Sept. 29. He wishes to exchange them for two notes of $1200 each and wants one to fall due June 1. When should the other be due?
The authors recount the 'great tale' of Napier's and Burgi's parallel development of logarithms and urge you to use it in class.
In how many ways can a vowel and a consonant be chosen out of the word "logarithms?"
A certain man had in his trade four weights with which he could weigh integral pounds from one up to 40. How many pounds was each weight?

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