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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

On an expedition to seize his enemy's elephants, a king marched 2 yojanas the first day.
Of the two water reeds, the one grows 3 feet and the other 1 foot on the first day. The growth of the first becomes every day half of that of the preceding day, while the other grows twice as much as on the day before.
A railway train strikes a snowdrift which creates a constant resistance. How long does it take the snow to stop the train?
The cost per hour of running a certain steamboat is proportional to the cube of its velocity in still water. At what speed should it be run to make a trip up stream against a four-mile current most economically?
One military horse cannot pull a load of 40 dan; neither can 2 ordinary horses, nor can three inferior horses.
Divide 100 loaves of bread among 10 men including a boatman, a foreman, and a doorkeeper, who receives double portions. What is the share of each?
Three men have a pile of money, their shares being 1/2, 1/3 and 1/6. Each man takes some money from the pile until nothing is left.
A set of n disjoint, congruent circles packs the surface of a sphere S so that each region of the surface exterior to the circles is bounded by arcs of three of the circles.
A person has a circular yard that is 150 ft. in diameter, and wishes a walk of equal width made round it within the fence...
An oracle ordered a prince to build a sacred building, whose space would be 400 cubits, the length being 6 cubits more than the width, and the width 3 cubits more than the height. Find the dimensions of the building.