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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Find the height of a window.
Two men have a certain amount of money. The first says to the second, "If you give me 5 denari, I will have 7 times what you have left."
A man entered an orchard through 7 gates, and there took a certain number of apples. When he left the orchard, he gave the first guard half the apples he had and 1 apple more.
If I were to give 7 pennies to each beggar at my door, I would have 24 pennies left in my purse. How many beggars are there and how much money do I have?
In order to encourage his son in the study of arithmetic, a father agrees to pay him 8 pennies for every problem solved correctly and to charge him 5 pennies for each incorrect solution.
In baking a hemispherical loaf of bread of 10" radius, the crust was everywhere of an equal thickness, and the solidity of the crust was equal to half the solid content of the whole loaf. What were the dimensions of the interior soft part?
There is a round town 8000 feet in circumference.
Given a triangular piece of land having two sides 10 yards in length and its base 12 yards, what is the largest square that can be constructed within this piece of land so that one of its sides lies along the base of the triangle?
How a translation of Peano's counterexample to the 'theorem' that a zero Wronskian implies linear dependence can help your differential equations students
What is the sum of the following series, carried to infinity: 11, 11/7, 11/49, etc.?