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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

A cliff with a tower on its edge is observed from a boat at sea; find the height of the cliff and the tower.
Discussion of 15th century French manuscript, with translation of its problems, including one with negative solutions
Find two numbers such that multiplying one by the other makes 8 and the sum of their squares is 27.
What it took to get an 8th grade education in 1895
A lion, a wolf and a fox each take a certain amount of time to eat a goat separately. How long would it take all these animals together to eat the goat?
A vessel is anchored in 3 fathoms of water and the cable passes over a sheave in the bowspirt which is 6 ft above the water.
Wanting to know the breadth of a river, I measured a base of 500 yards in a straight line close by one side of it.
Given the dimensions of an isosceles trapezoid find the length of the transversal drawn parallel to the bases that divides the trapezoid into 2 equal areas.
The number 50 is divided by a certain number. If the divisor is increased by 3, the quotient decreases by 3.75. What is the number?
A castle has n rooms each of which has 7 samurai in it.