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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

You have two sums of money, the difference of which is 2 dirhams; you divide the smaller sum by the larger and the quotient is equal to 1/2. What are the two sums of money?
Discussion of 15th century French manuscript, with translation of its problems, including one with negative solutions
A gentleman has a garden of rectangular form and wants to construct a walk of equal width half way round to take up half the garden. What must be the width of this walk?
A man has four creditors. To the first he owes 624 ducats; to the second, 546; to the third, 492; and to the fourth 368.
I was employed to survey a field, which I was told was an exact geometrical square, but by reason of a river running through it, I can only obtain partial measurements.
A ladder has 100 steps. On the first step sits 1 pigeon; on the second, 2; on the third, 3; and so on up to the hundredth. How many pigeons in all?
A man bought a number of sheep for $225; 10 of them having died, he sold 4/5 of the remainder for the same cost and received $150 for them. How many did he buy?
A barrel has various holes in it. The fist hole empties the barrel in three days...
A teacher agreed to teach 9 months for $562.50 and his board. At the end of the term, on account of two months absence caused by sickness, he received only $409.50. What was his board worth per month?
Find the isoceles triangle of smallest area that circumscribes a circle of radius 1.