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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Three people buy wood together. One pays the merchant 5 coins, another 3 coins, and the last 2 coins.
If 80 dollars worth of provisions will serve 20 men for 25 days, what number of men will the same amount of provisions serve for 10 days?
Two persons sat down to play for a certain sum of money; and agree that the first who gets three games shall be the winner. After a few games they resolve to divide the stakes. How much should each person receive?
Discussion of 15th century French manuscript, with translation of its problems, including one with negative solutions
Find two numbers such that multiplying one by the other makes 8 and the sum of their squares is 27.
A certain slave fled from Milan to Naples going 1/10 of the whole journey each day. At the beginning of the third day, his master sent a slave after him and this slave went 1/7 of the whole journey each day.
There is a round fish pond of certain dimensions, and into the pond is dropped a marble column. How high will the water rise?
Find two numbers, x and y, such that their sum is 10 and x/y + y/x = 25
What is the sum of the reciprocals of the triangular numbers?
If you are h feet tall and walk all the way around the Earth, keeping to the same circumference, how much farther has your head gone than your feet when you complete the journey?

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