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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Now there are six-headed four-legged animals and four-headed two-legged birds placed together.
Suppose that the propability of success in an experiment is 1/10. How many trials of the experiment are necessary to insure even odds on it happening at least once?
Discussion of 15th century French manuscript, with translation of its problems, including one with negative solutions
Two merchants, A and B, loaded a ship with 500 hhds (hogshead) of rum; A loaded 350 hhds, and B the rest; in a storm the seamen were obliged to throw overboard 100 hhds; how much must each sustain of the loss?
Two men brought their fish through customs. Find how much the fish cost, and what is the customs fee.
The king of France entered into a battle and was defeated. How many soldiers did he have before he was defeated?
What is the perpendicular height of a cloud when its angles of elevation were 35 degrees and 64 degrees as taken by two observers at the same time...
The perimeters of two similar triangles are 45 and 135 respectively. One side of the first triangle has length 11″ and a second side, 19″. Find the lengths of the sides of the second triangle.
When knowing the sum of their ages along with another equation, determine how old a father and son are.
One says that 10 is divided into three parts and if the small part is multiplied by itself and added to the middle one multiplied by itself the result is the large one multiplied by itself...