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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Given a semicircle, Prove that if O is the circle's center, DO=OE.
Discussion of 15th century French manuscript, with translation of its problems, including one with negative solutions
In a circle whose circumference is 60 units, a chord is drawn forming a segment whose sagitta is 2 units. What is the length of the chord?
Of a collection of mango fruits, the king took 1/6; the queen 1/5 the remainder, and the three princes took 1/4, 1/3 and 1/2 (of the same remainder); and the youngest child took the remaining 3 mangoes.
Three vertical posts along a straight canal, each rising to the same height above the surface of the water. By looking at the line of vision, determine, to the nearest mile, the radius of the earth.
Find two numbers, x and y, such that their sum is 10 and x/y + y/x = 25
One person possesses 7 asavas horses, another 9 hayas horses, and another 9 camels. Each gives two animals away, one to each of the others.
The answer to the following question is obtained using as optimum strategy-the farmer is getting the "best deal" possible. Can you figure out the solution strategy?...
I am a brazen lion; my spouts are my 2 eyes, my mouth, and the flat of my foot. My right eye fills a jar in 2 days, my left eye in 3, and my foot in 4.