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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Two officers each have a company of men, the one has 40 less than the other.
Four men already having denari found a purse of denari; each man has a different amount of denari before they found the purse. Find out how much denari each man has.
A number is required; that the square shall be equal to twice the cube.
A gentleman has bought a rectangular piece of land whose perimeter is to be 100 rods; and he is to pay 1 dollar for each rod in the length of the land and 3 dollars for each rod in the breath of the land.
A leech invited a slug for a lunch a leuca away.
How long does it take a single man to do work when...
Chuquet claimed that if given positive numbers a, b, c, d then (a + b) / (c + d) lies between a/c and b/d. Is he correct? Prove your answer
Determine a number having remainders 2, 3, 2 when divided by 3, 5, 7 respectively.
Given the dimensions of an isosceles trapezoid find the length of the transversal drawn parallel to the bases that divides the trapezoid into 2 equal areas.
The number 50 is divided by a certain number. If the divisor is increased by 3, the quotient decreases by 3.75. What is the number?

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