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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Two officers each have a company of men, the one has 40 less than the other.
A man hired a horse in London at 3 pence a mile. He rode 94 miles due West to Bristol then due north to Chester, whence he returned toward London for 66 miles, which put him in Coventry.
A number is required; that the square shall be equal to twice the cube.
A tree is 20 feet tall and has a circumference of 3 feet. There is a vine that winds seven equally spaced times around the tree and reaches the top. What is the length of the vine?
A leech invited a slug for a lunch a leuca away.
A speculator bought stock at 25% below par and sold it at 20% above par. He gained $1560. How much did he invest?
Chuquet claimed that if given positive numbers a, b, c, d then (a + b) / (c + d) lies between a/c and b/d. Is he correct? Prove your answer
Given: a circle with an inscribed equilateral triangle. The triangle has an area of 12 square units. What is the area of the circle?
Determine a number having remainders 2, 3, 2 when divided by 3, 5, 7 respectively.
If 80 dollars worth of provisions will serve 20 men for 25 days, what number of men will the same amount of provisions serve for 10 days?