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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

One military horse cannot pull a load of 40 dan; neither can 2 ordinary horses, nor can three inferior horses.
Suppose a lighthouse is built on the top of a rock; the distance between a place of observation and that part of the rock level with the eye is 620 yds.
In a forest, a number of apes equal in number to the square of 1/8 of the total number of apes are noisy. The remaining 12 apes are on a nearby hill irritated. What is the total number of apes in the pack?
Three men have a pile of money, their shares being 1/2, 1/3 and 1/6. Each man takes some money from the pile until nothing is left.