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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

When knowing the sum of their ages along with another equation, determine how old a father and son are.
The perimeters of two similar triangles are 45 and 135 respectively. One side of the first triangle has length 11″ and a second side, 19″. Find the lengths of the sides of the second triangle.
One says that 10 is divided into three parts and if the small part is multiplied by itself and added to the middle one multiplied by itself the result is the large one multiplied by itself...
A California miner has a spherical ball of gold, 2 inches in diamter, which he wants to exchange for spherical balls 1 inch in diameter. How many of the smaller spheres should he receive?