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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

A certain man had in his trade four weights with which he could weigh integral pounds from one up to 40. How many pounds was each weight?
Given a semicircle, Prove that if O is the circle's center, DO=OE.
The sum of the two digits of a 2-digit number is 9. If 45 is subtracted from the number, the result will be expressed by the digits in reverse order. Find the number.
Of a collection of mango fruits, the king took 1/6; the queen 1/5 the remainder, and the three princes took 1/4, 1/3 and 1/2 (of the same remainder); and the youngest child took the remaining 3 mangoes.
To find three quantities x.y, and z...
Three vertical posts along a straight canal, each rising to the same height above the surface of the water. By looking at the line of vision, determine, to the nearest mile, the radius of the earth.
There are two numbers which are to each other as 5 and 6 and the sum of their squares is 2196. What are the numbers?
Suppose a ladder 60 feet long is placed in a street so as to reach a window 37 feet above the ground on one side of the street...
The answer to the following question is obtained using as optimum strategy-the farmer is getting the "best deal" possible. Can you figure out the solution strategy?...
I am a brazen lion; my spouts are my 2 eyes, my mouth, and the flat of my foot. My right eye fills a jar in 2 days, my left eye in 3, and my foot in 4.