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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

A man is walking across a bridge, when a boat passes under the bridge.How rapidly are the boat and the pedestrian separating after the boat passes under the bridge?
Now there are 100 deers [being distributed] in a city. If one household has one deer there is a remainder...Find the number of households in the city.
Two officers each have a company of men, the one has 40 less than the other.
There are two numbers whose sum equals the difference of their squares.
A guest on horseback rides 300 li in a day. The guest leaves his clothes behind and the host rides off to catch up with the guest once he discovers the clothes. Assuming the host rides without stop tell how far he can go in a day?
A leech invited a slug for a lunch a leuca away.
I have two fields of grain. From the first field I harvest 2/3 a bushel of grain/unit area; from the second, 1/2 bushel/unit area.
A merchant bought 50,000 pounds of pepper in Portugal for 10,000 scudi and paid a tax of 500 scudi.
Prove that the area of a regular polygon can be given by the product of its perimeter and half the radius of the inscribed circle.
Determine a number having remainders 2, 3, 2 when divided by 3, 5, 7 respectively.

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