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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

On a certain ground stands two poles 12 feet apart, the lesser pole is 35 ft. in height and the greater 40 ft. It is sought, if the greater pole will lean on the lesser, then in what part will it touch?
The edge of a cloud is at an altitude of 20 degrees and the sun above it at 35 degrees. The shadow cast by the edge of the cloud fall on a object 2300 yards away, how high is the cloud?
Discussion of 15th century French manuscript, with translation of its problems, including one with negative solutions
An official asks a woman why she has so many bowls to wash. The woman explains that she had dinner guests who ate meat, rice, and soup. Judging by the number of bowls, how many guests were there?
A lady has two silver cups, and only one cover for both. The first cup weighs 16 oz, and when it is covered it weighs 3 times as much as the second cup; but when the second cup is covered, it weighs 4 times as much as the first.
Make of 10 three parts such that one part multiplied by 3 makes as much as the other multiplied by 4 and as the other multiplied by 5.
Two bicyclists travel in opposite directions around a quarter-mile track and meet every 22 seconds. When they travel in the same direction on this track, the faster passes the slower once every 3 minutes and 40 seconds. Find the rate of each rider
Having been given the perimeter and perpendicular of a right angled triangle, it is required to find the triangle.
X, Y and Z hired a pasture for the season for $90.00. Each has a different number of mules and are on the pasture for a different number of days. How much is each to pay?
I am a brazen lion; my spouts are my 2 eyes, my mouth, and the flat of my foot. My right eye fills a jar in 2 days, my left eye in 3, and my foot in 4.