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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

One says that 10 garments were purchased by two men at a price of 72 dirhams. The garments varied in value. The price of each garment of one man is 3 dirhams more than the price for each garment of the other. How many garments did each man buy?
A vessel is anchored in 3 fathoms of water and the cable passes over a sheave in the bowspirt which is 6 ft above the water.
There are two columns in the ruins of Persepolis left standing upright; one is 70 ft. above the plane, and the other 50 ft;
Wanting to know the breadth of a river, I measured a base of 500 yards in a straight line close by one side of it.
If 12 cattle eat up 3 1/3 acres of meadow in 4 weeks and 21 cattle eat up 10 acres of exactly similar meadow in 9 weeks, how many cattle shall eat up 36 acres in 18 weeks? (Hint: The grass continues to grow.)
A castle has n rooms each of which has 7 samurai in it.
If a ball 6 inches in diameter weighs 32 lbs, what will be the weight of a ball 3 inches in diameter?
Find two number with sum 20 and when squared their sum is 208.
Find the two numbers such that multiplying one by the other makes 8 and the sum of their squares is 27
In a forest, a number of apes equal in number to the square of 1/8 of the total number of apes are noisy. The remaining 12 apes are on a nearby hill irritated. What is the total number of apes in the pack?