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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

A number of 3 digits in base 7 has the same three digits...
Suppose General [George] Washington had 800 men and was supplied with provisions to last 2 months but he needed to feed his army for 7 months.
If two Post-boys, A and B at 59 miles distance from one another, set out in the morning in order to meet...
Show that the curves x2 - y2 = a2 and 2 xy = b2 cross at right angles.
The square of a certain number multiplied by itself and by 200 is 446,976. What is the number?
Two men have a certain amount of money. The first says to the second, "If you give me 5 denari, I will have 7 times what you have left."
Suppose that for every 4 cows a farmer has, he should plow 1 acre of land, and allow 1 acre of pasture for every 3 cows; how many cows could he keep on 140 acres?
If I were to give 7 pennies to each beggar at my door, I would have 24 pennies left in my purse. How many beggars are there and how much money do I have?
The cavity of our chimney is an upright parallelepiped, the diagonal of whose base is 60"; and the height of the lower side of the lintel above the plane of the floor is 40".
A horse halving its speed every day runs 700 miles in 7 days.

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