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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

What proportions of sugar at 8 cents, 10 cents and 14 cents per pound, will compose a mixture worth 12 cents per pound?
Suppose General [George] Washington had 800 men and was supplied with provisions to last 2 months but he needed to feed his army for 7 months.
Fibonacci gave a practical rule for approximating the area of an equilateral triangle.
Show that the curves x2 - y2 = a2 and 2 xy = b2 cross at right angles.
The dimensions of a rectangular box in inches are expressed by three consecutive numbers. The surface of the box is 292 square inches. Find the dimensions.
Two men have a certain amount of money. The first says to the second, "If you give me 5 denari, I will have 7 times what you have left."
Given two circle tangent at the point P with parallel diameters AB, CD, prove that APD and BPC are straight lines.
If I were to give 7 pennies to each beggar at my door, I would have 24 pennies left in my purse. How many beggars are there and how much money do I have?
A horse halving its speed every day runs 700 miles in 7 days.
In a given square, inscribe 4 equal circles so that...