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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

A ladder is placed perpendicular to the plane of the horizon, and in coincidence with the plane of an upright wall.
Having been given the lengths, a and b, of two straight lines drawn from the acute angles of a right triangle to the middle of the opposite sides, determine the lengths of those sides.
There is a fish whose body weighs 8oz. Tell me how much the whole fish weighs?
Two wine merchants enter Paris, one of them with 64 casks of wine, the other with 20.
The three sides of a triangular piece of land, taken in order, measure 15, 10, and 13 chains respectively.
There is a tree with 100 branches. How many nests, eggs and birds are there?
Two men starting from the same point begin walking in different directions. Their rates of travel are in the ratio 7:3.
The authors recount the 'great tale' of Napier's and Burgi's parallel development of logarithms and urge you to use it in class.
After a terrible battle it is found that 70% of the soldiers have lost an eye.
The cost per hour of running a certain steamboat is proportional to the cube of its velocity in still water. At what speed should it be run to make a trip up stream against a four-mile current most economically?