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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

If I were to give 7 pennies to each beggar at my door, I would have 24 pennies left in my purse. How many beggars are there and how much money do I have?
A horse halving its speed every day runs 700 miles in 7 days.
A rifle ball is fired through a three-inch plank, the resistance of which causes an unknown constant retardation of its velocity.
As for a square piece of land that amounts to 100 square cubits, if it is said to you, "Cause it to make a piece of land that amounts to 100 square cubits that is round," what is the required diameter?
How a translation of Peano's counterexample to the 'theorem' that a zero Wronskian implies linear dependence can help your differential equations students
Rabbits and pheasants are put in a basket.
There is a regular pentagon. The length of its side is a. Find the area of the pentagon. Generalize your result for a nonagon.
Two men rent a pasture for 100 liras on the understanding that two cows are to be counted as being equivalent to three sheep. The first puts in 60 cows and 85 sheep; the second 80 cows and 100 sheep. How much should each pay?
Discussion of 15th century French manuscript, with translation of its problems, including one with negative solutions
There is a number which when divided by 2, or 3, or 4, or 5, or 6 always has a remainder of 1 and is truly divisible by 7. It is sought what is the number?