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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

A number is required; that the square shall be equal to twice the cube.
A leech invited a slug for a lunch a leuca away.
There are four companies, in one of which there are 6 men, in another 8, and in each of the remaining two, 9 men. How many ways can a committee of 4 men be composed by choosing one man from each company?
Given a rectangle, find the line through one vertex of minimum length that passes through the extensions of the two opposite sides.
Chuquet claimed that if given positive numbers a, b, c, d then (a + b) / (c + d) lies between a/c and b/d. Is he correct? Prove your answer
Determine a number having remainders 2, 3, 2 when divided by 3, 5, 7 respectively.
There is a right triangle where: the sum of the upright multiplied by itself twice and the hypotenuse multiplied by itself is 700 units; and, the sum of the base multiplied by itself twice and the hypotenuse multiplied by itself is 900 units.
Three men wish to buy a horse but none have a sufficient amount of money for the purchase; to do so they must borrow from each other. How much money does each man have and what is the price of the horse?
The authors recount the 'great tale' of Napier's and Burgi's parallel development of logarithms and urge you to use it in class.
Two travelers, starting at the same time from the same point, travel in opposite directions round a circular railway.