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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Three people buy wood together. One pays the merchant 5 coins, another 3 coins, and the last 2 coins.
A fellow said that when he counted his nuts by twos, threes, fours, fives and sixes, there was still one left over; but when he counted them by sevens they came out even. How many did he have?
A general formed his men into a square, that is, an equal number in rank and file, and he found that he had an excess of 59 men.
Discussion of 15th century French manuscript, with translation of its problems, including one with negative solutions
Find two numbers such that multiplying one by the other makes 8 and the sum of their squares is 27.
Having been given the lengths, a and b, of two straight lines drawn from the acute angles of a right triangle to the middle of the opposite sides, determine the lengths of those sides.
There is a fish whose body weighs 8oz. Tell me how much the whole fish weighs?
Find two numbers, x and y, such that their sum is 10 and x/y + y/x = 25
What is the sum of the reciprocals of the triangular numbers?
There is a tree with 100 branches. How many nests, eggs and birds are there?

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