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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Now there are 100 deers [being distributed] in a city. If one household has one deer there is a remainder...Find the number of households in the city.
To find three quantities x.y, and z...
There are two numbers which are to each other as 5 and 6 and the sum of their squares is 2196. What are the numbers?
A guest on horseback rides 300 li in a day. The guest leaves his clothes behind and the host rides off to catch up with the guest once he discovers the clothes. Assuming the host rides without stop tell how far he can go in a day?
Suppose a ladder 60 feet long is placed in a street so as to reach a window 37 feet above the ground on one side of the street...
I have two fields of grain. From the first field I harvest 2/3 a bushel of grain/unit area; from the second, 1/2 bushel/unit area.
Twenty-three weary travelers entered a delightful forest. There they found 63 numerically equal piles of plantain fruit.
Prove that the area of a regular polygon can be given by the product of its perimeter and half the radius of the inscribed circle.
A certain bishop ordered that 12 loaves be divided among his clergy.
Two circles of radii 25 feet intersect so that the distance between their centers is 30 feet. What is the length of the side of the largest square inscribable within their intersecting arcs?

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