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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Having been given the sum of two numbers,a, and the difference of their squares,b, find the numbers.
A fellow said that when he counted his nuts by twos, threes, fours, fives and sixes, there was still one left over; but when he counted them by sevens they came out even. How many did he have?
A general formed his men into a square, that is, an equal number in rank and file, and he found that he had an excess of 59 men.
Determine the greatest cylinder that can be inscribed in a given cone.
A square walled city measures 10 li on each side. At the center of each side is a gate. Two persons start walking from the center of the city.
Having been given the lengths, a and b, of two straight lines drawn from the acute angles of a right triangle to the middle of the opposite sides, determine the lengths of those sides.
There is a fish whose body weighs 8oz. Tell me how much the whole fish weighs?
The authors recount the 'great tale' of Napier's and Burgi's parallel development of logarithms and urge you to use it in class.
A lady being asked how old she was at the time of her marriage replied that the age of her oldest son was 13; that he was born 2 years after her marriage...
There is a tree with 100 branches. How many nests, eggs and birds are there?