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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

What is the perpendicular height of a cloud when it's angles of elevation were 35 degrees and 64 degrees as taken by two observers?
How much does Landowner A give to each worker knowing Landowner B gives a certain amount more and has few workers.
Discussion of 15th century French manuscript, with translation of its problems, including one with negative solutions
A wooden beam is stood vertically against a wall. The length of the beam is 30 units.
Find the height of a window.
A man entered an orchard through 7 gates, and there took a certain number of apples. When he left the orchard, he gave the first guard half the apples he had and 1 apple more.
Three circles of varying radius are mutually tangent. The area of the triangle connecting their centers is given. Find the radius of the third circle.
Two officers each have a company of men, the one has 40 less than the other.
My age is a number consisting of two digits, 1/2 of this number is a mean proportional between these two digits, and two years hence, my age will be a third proportional to the same two digits, directly as they stand in my present age.
Given a triangular piece of land having two sides 10 yards in length and its base 12 yards, what is the largest square that can be constructed within this piece of land so that one of its sides lies along the base of the triangle?