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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Two men have a certain amount of money. The first says to the second, "If you give me 5 denari, I will have 7 times what you have left."
Gun metal of a certain grade is composed of 16% tin and 84% copper. How much tin must be added to 410 lbs. of this gun metal to make a composition of 18% tin?
Now there are six-headed four legged animals and four-headed two-legged birds. Find the total number of animals and birds.
If I were to give 7 pennies to each beggar at my door, I would have 24 pennies left in my purse. How many beggars are there and how much money do I have?
A horse halving its speed every day runs 700 miles in 7 days.
Seven men held equal shares in a grinding stone 5 feet in diameter. What part of the diameter should each grind away?
How a translation of Peano's counterexample to the 'theorem' that a zero Wronskian implies linear dependence can help your differential equations students
Given a pyramid 300 cubits high, with a square base 500 cubits to a side, determine the distance from the center of any side to the apex.
Rabbits and pheasants are put in a basket.
In a rectangle, having given the diagonal and perimeter, find the sides