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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

The highest point of the Andes is about 4 miles above sea level.
A rifle ball is fired through a three-inch plank, the resistance of which causes an unknown constant retardation of its velocity.
In order to encourage his son in the study of arithmetic, a father agrees to pay him 8 pennies for every problem solved correctly and to charge him 5 pennies for each incorrect solution.
As for a square piece of land that amounts to 100 square cubits, if it is said to you, "Cause it to make a piece of land that amounts to 100 square cubits that is round," what is the required diameter?
There is a round town 8000 feet in circumference.
There is a regular pentagon. The length of its side is a. Find the area of the pentagon. Generalize your result for a nonagon.
How a translation of Peano's counterexample to the 'theorem' that a zero Wronskian implies linear dependence can help your differential equations students
Two men rent a pasture for 100 liras on the understanding that two cows are to be counted as being equivalent to three sheep. The first puts in 60 cows and 85 sheep; the second 80 cows and 100 sheep. How much should each pay?
Now there are six-headed four-legged animals and four-headed two-legged birds placed together.
A certain man had in his trade four weights with which he could weigh integral pounds from one up to 40. How many pounds was each weight?