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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

The cost per hour of running a certain steamboat is proportional to the cube of its velocity in still water. At what speed should it be run to make a trip up stream against a four-mile current most economically?
Two men have a certain amount of money. The first says to the second, "If you give me 5 denari, I will have 7 times what you have left."
Divide 100 loaves of bread among 10 men including a boatman, a foreman, and a doorkeeper, who receives double portions. What is the share of each?
If I were to give 7 pennies to each beggar at my door, I would have 24 pennies left in my purse. How many beggars are there and how much money do I have?
A set of n disjoint, congruent circles packs the surface of a sphere S so that each region of the surface exterior to the circles is bounded by arcs of three of the circles.
A horse halving its speed every day runs 700 miles in 7 days.
An oracle ordered a prince to build a sacred building, whose space would be 400 cubits, the length being 6 cubits more than the width, and the width 3 cubits more than the height. Find the dimensions of the building.
How a translation of Peano's counterexample to the 'theorem' that a zero Wronskian implies linear dependence can help your differential equations students
Now a good horse and an inferior horse set out from Chang'an to Qi. Qi is 3000 li from Chang'an.
Rabbits and pheasants are put in a basket.