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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

A ladder is placed perpendicular to the plane of the horizon, and in coincidence with the plane of an upright wall.
A leech invited a slug for a lunch a leuca away.
A horse, halving its speed each day, travels 700 miles in 7 days. How far does it travel each day?
Chuquet claimed that if given positive numbers a, b, c, d then (a + b) / (c + d) lies between a/c and b/d. Is he correct? Prove your answer
A rifle ball is fired through a three-inch plank, the resistance of which causes an unknown constant retardation of its velocity.
Determine a number having remainders 2, 3, 2 when divided by 3, 5, 7 respectively.
As for a square piece of land that amounts to 100 square cubits, if it is said to you, "Cause it to make a piece of land that amounts to 100 square cubits that is round," what is the required diameter?
The authors recount the 'great tale' of Napier's and Burgi's parallel development of logarithms and urge you to use it in class.
There is a regular pentagon. The length of its side is a. Find the area of the pentagon. Generalize your result for a nonagon.
Two travelers, starting at the same time from the same point, travel in opposite directions round a circular railway.