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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

In a certain lake, swarming with red geese, the tip of a lotus bud was seen to extend a span [9 inches] above the surface of the water.
A farmer sold a team of horses for $440, but did not receive his pay for them until 1 yr, 8 mo after the sale. He had at the same time another offer of $410 for them. Did he gain or lose by the sale and by how much, money being worth 6%/yr?
Discussion of 15th century French manuscript, with translation of its problems, including one with negative solutions
There is a lion in a well whose depth is 50 palms. He climbs and slips back a certain amount each day. In how many days will he get out of the well?
What number which being increased by 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4 of itself, the sum shall be 75?
A gentleman has bought a rectangular piece of land whose perimeter is to be 100 rods.
A father wills his estate valued at $40, 000 to his three children. Before the settlement one of the children dies. What should the other two receive?
A copper water tank in the form of a rectangular parallelopiped is to made. If its length is to be a times its breadth, how high should it be that for a given capacity it should cost as little as possible?
Of the two water reeds, the one grows 3 feet and the other 1 foot on the first day. The growth of the first becomes every day half of that of the preceding day, while the other grows twice as much as on the day before.
A ladder is placed perpendicular to the plane of the horizon, and in coincidence with the plane of an upright wall.

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