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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

In a circle whose circumference is 60 units, a chord is drawn forming a segment whose sagitta is 2 units. What is the length of the chord?
Of a collection of mango fruits, the king took 1/6; the queen 1/5 the remainder, and the three princes took 1/4, 1/3 and 1/2 (of the same remainder); and the youngest child took the remaining 3 mangoes.
Three vertical posts along a straight canal, each rising to the same height above the surface of the water. By looking at the line of vision, determine, to the nearest mile, the radius of the earth.
A man is walking across a bridge, when a boat passes under the bridge.How rapidly are the boat and the pedestrian separating after the boat passes under the bridge?
One person possesses 7 asavas horses, another 9 hayas horses, and another 9 camels. Each gives two animals away, one to each of the others.
The answer to the following question is obtained using as optimum strategy-the farmer is getting the "best deal" possible. Can you figure out the solution strategy?...
I am a brazen lion; my spouts are my 2 eyes, my mouth, and the flat of my foot. My right eye fills a jar in 2 days, my left eye in 3, and my foot in 4.
There are two numbers whose sum equals the difference of their squares.
A four-sided town measures 1100 feet on one side and 1000 feet on the other side, on one edge 600 and the other edge 600.
A woodcutter starts to fell a tree 4 feet in diameter, and cuts half way through. One face of the cut is horizontal, and the other face is inclined to the horizontal at an angle of 45 degrees. Find the volume of the wood cut out.