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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Suppose General [George] Washington had 800 men and was supplied with provisions to last 2 months but he needed to feed his army for 7 months.
Determine the radii of three equal circles decribed within and tangent to a given circle, and also tangent to each other
Show that the curves x2 - y2 = a2 and 2 xy = b2 cross at right angles.
The radius of a circle is 3.20 meters. Compute to within .001m the areas of the inscribed and circumscribed equilateral triangles.
The highest point of the Andes is about 4 miles above sea level.
If in a circle ABDC, circumscribe an equilateral triangle ABC; the straight line AD is equal to the sum of the two straight lines BD and DC: required a demonstration.
In order to encourage his son in the study of arithmetic, a father agrees to pay him 8 pennies for every problem solved correctly and to charge him 5 pennies for each incorrect solution.
A cat sitting on a wall 4 cubits high saw a rat prowling 8 cubits from the foot of the wall;
There is a round town 8000 feet in circumference.
A square circumscribed about a given circle is double in area to a square inscribed in the same circle. True of false? Prove your answer.