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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

One says that 10 is divided into three parts and if the small part is multiplied by itself and added to the middle one multiplied by itself the result is the large one multiplied by itself...
How high above the earth must a person be raised that he [or she] may see 1/3 of its surface?
Two men start walking at the same time and travel a distance. One is walking faster and completes the journey sooner. How fast did each man travel?
There are two numbers which are to each other as 5 and 6 and the sum of their squares is 2196. What are the numbers?
The highest point of the Andes is about 4 miles above sea level.
The square of a certain number multiplied by itself and by 200 is 446,976. What is the number?
The authors recount the 'great tale' of Napier's and Burgi's parallel development of logarithms and urge you to use it in class.
Suppose that for every 4 cows a farmer has, he should plow 1 acre of land, and allow 1 acre of pasture for every 3 cows; how many cows could he keep on 140 acres?
A certain bishop ordered that 12 loaves be divided among his clergy.
The cavity of our chimney is an upright parallelepiped, the diagonal of whose base is 60"; and the height of the lower side of the lintel above the plane of the floor is 40".