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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

One person possesses 7 asavas horses, another 9 hayas horses, and another 9 camels. Each gives two animals away, one to each of the others.
Given a wooden log of diameter 2 feet 5 inches from which a 7 inch thick board is to be cut, what is the maximum possible width of the board?
There are two numbers whose sum equals the difference of their squares.
A man agreed to pay for 13 valuable houses worth $5000 each, what the last would amount to, reckoning 7 cents for the first, 4 times 7 cents for the second, and so on, increasing the price 4 times on each to the last.
A four-sided town measures 1100 feet on one side and 1000 feet on the other side, on one edge 600 and the other edge 600.
A father left $20,000 to be divided among his four sons ages 6, 8, 10, and 12 years respectively so that each share placed at 4 1/2 compounded interest should amount to the same value when its possessor becomes the age 21.
A merchant bought 50,000 pounds of pepper in Portugal for 10,000 scudi and paid a tax of 500 scudi.
Given a right triangle where you know the length of the base and the sum of the perpendicular side and the hypotenuse.

Find a number having remainder 29 when divided by 30 and remainder 3 when divided by 4.
Two persons sat down to play for a certain sum of money; and agree that the first who gets three games shall be the winner. After a few games they resolve to divide the stakes. How much should each person receive?