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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

There is a garden is the shape of a rhombus whose side is 768.52 feet. Within the garden is an inscribed square flower bed whose side is 396 feet. What is the area of the garden?
Now there are 100 deers [being distributed] in a city. If one household has one deer there is a remainder...Find the number of households in the city.
The purchase price for an apple and an orange is 100 yen. When n oranges and n + 3 apples are bought the price is 520 yen. Find the number n of oranges and the price of one orange.
A guest on horseback rides 300 li in a day. The guest leaves his clothes behind and the host rides off to catch up with the guest once he discovers the clothes. Assuming the host rides without stop tell how far he can go in a day?
Having been given the perimeter and perpendicular of a right angled triangle, it is required to find the triangle.
I have two fields of grain. From the first field I harvest 2/3 a bushel of grain/unit area; from the second, 1/2 bushel/unit area.
Determine the dimensions of the least isosceles triangle ACD that can circumscribe a given circle.
Prove that the area of a regular polygon can be given by the product of its perimeter and half the radius of the inscribed circle.
Given four numbers whose sum is 9900; the second exceeds the first by 1/7 of the first...
Two circles of radii 25 feet intersect so that the distance between their centers is 30 feet. What is the length of the side of the largest square inscribable within their intersecting arcs?