Paolo Ruffini (1765–1822) published his *Riflessioni intorno alla soluzione delle equazioni algebraiche* in 1813.

The first page of instruction:

*The images above are provided courtesy of Columbia University Libraries, George Arthur Plimpton Collection.*

*Editor's note:* For images from Ruffini's *Teoria generale delle equazioni,* containing his proof that polynomial equations of degree greater than four do not in general have algebraic solutions for their roots, see "Mathematical Treasure: Ruffini's Theory of Equations" here in *Convergence.*