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A man entered an orchard through 7 gates, and there took a certain number of apples. When he left the orchard, he gave the first guard half the apples he had and 1 apple more.

In Archimedes' Book of Lemmas (ca 250), he introduces a figure that, due to its shape, has historically been known as "the shoemaker's knife" or arbelos.
One person possesses 7 asavas horses, another 9 hayas horses, and another 9 camels. Each gives two animals away, one to each of the others.
The most popular and authoritative arithmetic book in late 17th and 18th century England, it stayed in print for 100 years.

I was employed to survey a field, which I was told was an exact geometrical square, but by reason of a river running through it, I can only obtain partial measurements.

An analysis of James Gregory's proof of the Pappus-Guldin theorem, along with the original documents both in Latin and English.

Now there are 100 deer [being distributed] in a city. If one household has one deer there is a remainder...Find the number of households in the city.

A castle has n rooms each of which has 7 samurai in it.

Thirty flasks—10 full, 10 half-empty, and 10 completely empty—are to be divided among 3 sons so that flasks and contents should be shared equally. How may this be done?

A historically minded textbook designed to teach real analysis by considering some of the problems faced by 19th century mathematicians.

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