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A delightful survey of the history of trigonometry, along with discussions of its uses, both ancient and modern.

Title page of Jacob Bernoulli's Ars Conjectandi (The Art of Conjecturing), published posthumously in 1713 by his nephew Nicolaus I Bernoulli. The Ars Conjectandi is famous for Bernoulli's statement of a general rule for summing integral powers as well as for the first statement and proof of the Law of Large Numbers.
Information on the NCTM Fall, 2004 Eastern Regional meeting.

Essays on how number has been critical to the work of scientists through the ages.

Given a pyramid 300 cubits high, with a square base 500 cubits to a side, determine the distance from the center of any side of the base to the apex.

The classic work by Dirk Struik is still worth reading, especially for its attention to the social context of the development of mathematical ideas.

How does geometry begin? This work explores the origins of geometry in the work of artisans.

In a rectangle, given the diagonal and perimeter, find the sides

This is the title page of the Summa de arithmetica, geometrica, proportioni et proportionalita, published by Luca Pacioli in 1494. This was the most comprehensive mathematical text of the time and one of the earliest printed mathematical works. It contained not only practical arithmetic, but also algebra, practical geometry and the first published treatment of double-entry bookkeeping.