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In a rectangle, given the diagonal and perimeter, find the sides

This is the title page of the Summa de arithmetica, geometrica, proportioni et proportionalita, published by Luca Pacioli in 1494. This was the most comprehensive mathematical text of the time and one of the earliest printed mathematical works. It contained not only practical arithmetic, but also algebra, practical geometry and the first published treatment of double-entry bookkeeping.

If 40 oranges are worth 60 apples, and 75 apples are worth 7 dozen peaches, and 100 peaches are worth 1 box of grapes and three boxes of grapes are worth 40 pounds of pecans, how many pounds of pecans can be bought for 100 oranges?

Relationships between Architecture and Mathematics

Three equal circles with radii 12 feet are tangent to each other. Compute the area enclosed between them.

A fox, a wild-cat, and a hound pass through customs and together pay 111 coins.

One says that 10 is divided into three parts and if the small part is multiplied by itself and added to the middle one multiplied by itself the result is the large one multiplied by itself...

A circle ABDC is circumscribed around an equilateral triangle ABC.  Prove that the straight line AD is equal to the sum of the two straight lines BD and DC.

A brief outline of policies for submission of articles to Loci.

Three vertical posts along a straight canal, each rising to the same height above the surface of the water. By using measurments of the posts, determine, to the nearest mile, the radius of the earth.