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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Suppose that for every 4 cows a farmer has, he should plow 1 acre of land, and allow 1 acre of pasture for every 3 cows; how many cows could he keep on 140 acres?
The authors recount the 'great tale' of Napier's and Burgi's parallel development of logarithms and urge you to use it in class.
I wish to find three numbers of such nature that the first and the second with 1/2 of the third makes 20...
A boy gives 11 coins of equal denomination to a man, and the man finds that their total value in yen is 4 less than his age.
Given a number, take 1/3 of the number away from itself and also remove 2. If this result is multiplied by itself, it equals the number plus 24. What is the number?
A cat sitting on a wall 4 cubits high saw a rat prowling 8 cubits from the foot of the wall.
How a translation of Peano's counterexample to the 'theorem' that a zero Wronskian implies linear dependence can help your differential equations students
In one day, a person can make 30 arrows or fletch [put the feathers on] 20 arrows.
A fellow said that when he counted his nuts by twos, threes, fours, fives and sixes, there was still one left over; but when he counted them by sevens they came out even. What is the smallest number of nuts he could have?
Given a guest on horseback rides 300 li in a day. The guest leaves his clothes behind. The host discovers them after 1/3 day, and he starts out with the clothes.