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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

What is the value of X...
A father wills his estate valued at $40,000 to his three children. Before the settlement one of the children dies. What should the other two receive?
I have two fields of grain. From the first field I harvest 2/3 sila (a measurement of grain volume) per sar (a unit of area); from the second, 1/2 sila per sar.
Determine the different values of x, when a certain function hits a minimum.
The highest point of the Andes is about 4 miles above sea level.
Suppose a ladder 60 feet long is placed in a street so as to reach a window 37 feet above the ground on one side of the street...
A rifle ball is fired through a three-inch plank, the resistance of which causes an unknown constant retardation of its velocity.
A round pond sits in a rectangular garden. Its center is inaccessible; however, you know the distances from each corner of the garden to the circumference of the pond: 60, 52, 28, and 40 yards. What is the radius of the pond?
The authors recount the 'great tale' of Napier's and Burgi's parallel development of logarithms and urge you to use it in class.
In how many ways can a vowel and a consonant be chosen out of the word "logarithms?"