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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Imagine an urn with two balls, each of which may be either white or black. One of these balls is drawn and is put back before a new one is drawn.
Discussion of 15th century French manuscript, with translation of its problems, including one with negative solutions
There is a number which when divided by 2, or 3, or 4, or 5, or 6 always has a remainder of 1 and is truly divisible by 7. It is sought what is the number?
Knowing the base, b, and the altitude, a, of a triangle, find the expression for a side of the inscribed square.
The triangle ABC has a right angle at C. Show that 1/ED=1/AC+1/AB
The sum of the two digits of a 2-digit number is 9. If 45 is subtracted from the number, the result will be expressed by the digits in reverse order. Find the number.
Two officers each have a company of men, the one has 40 less than the other.
In a given square, inscribe 4 equal circles so that...
If two Post-Boys, A and B at 59 miles distance from one another, set out in the morning in order to meet...
A water tub holds 73 gallons; the pipe which fills it usually admits 7 gallons in 5 minutes; and the tap discharges 20 gallons in 17 minutes.