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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Knowing the base, b, and the altitude, a, of a triangle. Find the expression for a side of the inscribed square.
Now there are 100 deers [being distributed] in a city. If one household has one deer there is a remainder...Find the number of households in the city.
Discussion of 15th century French manuscript, with translation of its problems, including one with negative solutions
Determine by using algebra the number of degrees in the angle A where: cos A = tan A
On an expedition to seize his enemy's elephants, a king marched 2 yojanas the first day.
A guest on horseback rides 300 li in a day. The guest leaves his clothes behind and the host rides off to catch up with the guest once he discovers the clothes. Assuming the host rides without stop tell how far he can go in a day?
I have two fields of grain. From the first field I harvest 2/3 a bushel of grain/unit area; from the second, 1/2 bushel/unit area.
A railway train strikes a snowdrift which creates a constant resistance. How long does it take the snow to stop the train?
One military horse cannot pull a load of 40 dan; neither can 2 ordinary horses, nor can three inferior horses.
Prove that the area of a regular polygon can be given by the product of its perimeter and half the radius of the inscribed circle.