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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

A rifle ball is fired through a three-inch plank, the resistance of which causes an unknown constant retardation of its velocity.
As for a square piece of land that amounts to 100 square cubits, if it is said to you, "Cause it to make a piece of land that amounts to 100 square cubits that is round," what is the required diameter?
A merchant bought 50,000 pounds of pepper in Portugal for 10,000 scudi and paid a tax of 500 scudi.
Find a number having remainder 29 when divided by 30 and remainder 3 when divided by 4.
There is a regular pentagon. The length of its side is a. Find the area of the pentagon. Generalize your result for a nonagon.
Two men rent a pasture for 100 liras on the understanding that two cows are to be counted as being equivalent to three sheep. The first puts in 60 cows and 85 sheep; the second 80 cows and 100 sheep. How much should each pay?
The authors recount the 'great tale' of Napier's and Burgi's parallel development of logarithms and urge you to use it in class.
An oblong garden is a half yard longer than it is wide and consists entirely of a gravel walk...
A certain man had in his trade four weights with which he could weigh integral pounds from one up to 40. How many pounds was each weight?
Given a semicircle, Prove that if O is the circle's center, DO=OE.