The Arithmetic of Boethius (480-524) dates from the early sixth century. This page is from a mansucript (Plimpton MS 165) that dates from approximately 1294, written on vellum. This page (f. 13) lists the powers of 2, 3, and 4 (at the bottom) and also has some other tables representing multiplication by some of these powers. Note that the forms of the figures are not always identical to the modern form.
This manuscript page (f. 15) contains illustrations of square and pentagonal numbers.